Wide Area Network (WAN)

Types and Characteristics of WANs

What is a WAN?

There are two prevailing definitions of a Wide Area Network (WAN). The book definition of a WAN is a network that spans large geographical locations, usually to interconnect multiple Local Area Networks (LANs). The practical definition of a WAN is a network that traverses a public network or commercial carrier, using one of several WAN technologies

What are its Main Components?

The main components for a WAN are routers, switches and modems. These components are described below in the hardware section.

CPE – Devices on the subscriber premises are called customer premises equipment (CPE).

The subscriber owns the CPE or leases the CPE from the service provider. A copper or fiber cable connects the CPE to the service provider’s nearest exchange or central office. This cabling is often called the local loop, or “last-mile”.

DTE/DCE – Devices that put data on the local loop are called data circuit-terminating equipment, or data communications equipment (DCE). The customer devices that pass the data to the DCE are called data terminal equipment (DTE). The DCE primarily provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud.

Hardware

In a WAN you will need various types of hardware components for it to function. The typical items of hardware that you will need in a WAN are:

Router – An electronic device that connects a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN) and handles the task of routing messages between the two networks. Operates at layer 3, and makes decisions using IP addresses.

Switch – A switch is a network device that selects a path or circuit for sending a unit of data to its next destination. Operates at layer 2, and uses MAC addresses to send data to correct destination.

Modem – Short for modulator/demodulator, a modem enables a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines. Operates at layer 1, where signals are converted from digital to analogue and vice versa for transmission and receiving.

Wan Standards

WANs operate within the OSI model using layer 1 and layer 2 levels. The data link layer and the physical layer. The physical layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical and functional connections to the services provided by the ISP. The data link layer defines how data is encapsulated for transmission to remote sites.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the wrapping of data in a particular protocol header. Remember that WANs operate at the physical layer and the data link layer of the osi model and that higher layer protocols such as IP are encapsulated when sent across the WAN link. Serial interfaces support a wide range of WAN encapsulation types, which must be manually specified. These types include SDLC, PPP, Frame delay etc. Regardless of WAN encapsulation used it must be identical on both sides of the point to point link.

Packet and Circuit Switching

Circuit switching and packet switching are both used in high-capacity networks.

The majority of switched networks today get data across the network

through packet switching.

Circuit-switching is more reliable than packet-switching. Circuit switching is old and expensive, packet switching is more modern.

General Routing Issues

What is a Routing Protocol?

A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate and exchange information on a network. Each router has prior knowledge of its immediate neighbours and knows the structure of the network topology. The routers know this because the routing protocol shares this information.

Protocol

RIP (Routing Information Protocol) was one of the most commonly uses protocols on internal networks. Routers use RIP to dynamically adapt changes to the network connections and communicate information about which networks routers can reach and the distance between them. RIP is sometimes said to stand for Rest in Pieces in reference to the reputation that RIP has for breaking unexpectedly and rendering a network unable to function.

Routing Algorithms

Distance Vector

This type of routing protocol requires that each router simply inform its neighbours of its routing table. The distance vector protocol is also known as the bellman-ford algorithm.

Link State

This type of routing protocol requires that each router maintain a partial map of the network. The link state algorithm is also know as Dijkstra’s algorithm.

IGRP

IGRP is a type of distance vector routing protocol invented by cisco used to exchange routing data in a autonomous system. Distance vector protocols measure distances and compare routes. Routers that use distance vector must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing update message at regular intervals to each neighbour router.

Addressing and Routing

What does routing mean?

Routing is the process of deciding how to move packets from one network to another.

The directions also known as routes can be learned by a router using a routing protocol then the information is passed from router to router along the route of the destination.

IP Address’s

Every machine connected to the internet is assigned an IP address. An example of an IP address would be 192.168.0.1. IP addresses are displayed in decimal format to make it easier for humans to understand but computers communicate in binary form. The four numbers that separate an IP address are called Octets. Each position consists of eight bits. When added to together you get 32 bit address. The purpose of each octet in an IP address is to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned within a network. There are three main classes that we deal with Class A, B and C. The octets of an IP address are split into two parts Network and Host. In a class A address the first octet is the network portion, this determines which network the computer belongs to, the last octets of the address are the hosts that belong to the network.

Sub netting

Sub netting allows you to create multiple networks within a class A, B or C address. The subnet address is the address used by your LAN. In a Class C network address you would have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. A subnet mask identifies which portion is network and which is host. For example 192.168.6.15 the first octet three octets are the Network address and the last octet being the host(Workstation). It is important to subnet a network because gateways need to forward packets to other LANS. By giving each NIC on the gateway an IP address and a Subnet mask it allows the gateways to route packets from LAN to LAN. Once the packet arrives at its destination, the gateway then uses the bits of the subnet portion of the IP address to decide which LAN to send the packets.

Circuit Switched Leased Lines

A circuit switched network is one that establishes a dedicated circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. Here are some terminologies associated with a Circuit switched network.

Frame relay is a telecommunication service designed for cost-efficient data transmission between local area networks (LANs)

Basic rate interference is a service used by small business for internet connectivity. An ISDN BRI provides two 64 Kbps digital channels to the user.

Primary rate interface (PRI) is a telecommunications standard for carrying voice and data transmissions between two locations

All data and voice channels are ISDN and operate at 64kbit/s

Packet Switching

http://www.raduniversity.com/networks/2004/PacketSwitching/main.htm – _Toc80455261

Packet switching refers to protocols in which messages are broken up into small packets before they are sent. Each packet is then transmitted over the Internet. At the destination the packets are reassembled into the original message. Packet switching main difference from Circuit Switching is that that the communication lines are not dedicated to passing messages from the source to the destination. In Packet Switching, different messages can use the same network resources within the same time period.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asynchronous_Transfer_Mode

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and protocolwhich encodes data into small fixed-sized cells.

ISDN is used to carry voice, data, video and images across a telephone network. ISDN stands for integrated services Digital Network. Isdn also provides users with a 128kbps bandwidth. This is done through frame relay. Frame relay complements and provides a service between ISDN, which offers bandwidth at 128 Kbps and Asynchronous Transfer Mode which operates in somewhat similar fashion to frame relay but at speeds from 155.520 Mbps or 622.080 Mbps. Frame relay is based on the older X.25 packet switching technology and is used to transmit analogue signals such as telephone conversations.

PSDN stands for packet switched data network and is a data communication network. Packet switched networks do not establish a physical communication signal like the public telephone does (circuit switched network) Packets are sent on a fixed length basis and assigned with a source and a destination address. The packets then rely on the routers to read the address and route the packets through the network.

Mobile and Broadband Services

Digital Subscriber line(DSL) is mainly used to bring high bandwidth connections to homes and small business’s over a copper wire telephone line. This is can only be achieved if you stay within the range of the telephone exchange. DSL offers download rates of up to 6mbps allowing continuous transmission of video, audio and 3D effects. DSL is set to replace ISDN and compete with the cable modem in providing multimedia to homes. DSL works by connecting your telephone line to the telephone office over copper wires that are twisted together.

Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line is most commonly used for home users. It provides a high download speed but a lower upload speed. Using ADSL, up to 6.1 megabits per second of data can be sent downstream and up to 640 Kbps upstream.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetric_Digital_Subscriber_Line

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a digital subcriber line which runs over one pair of copper wires. The main difference between ADSL and SDSL is the difference in upload and download speeds. SDSL allows the same upstream data rate and downstream data rate as ADSL upstream can be very slow.

[http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0],,sid7_gci558545,00.html

HDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, one of the earliest forms of DSL, is used for wideband digital transmission within a corporate site and between the telephone company and a customer. The main characteristic of HDSL is that provides equal bandwidth in both directions.

IDSL is a system in which data is transmitted at 128 Kbps on a regular copper telephone line from a user to a destination using digital transmission.

The Local Loop enables operators to connect directly to the consumer via copper local loops and then add their own equipment to offer broadband and other services. This process involves operators accessing local exchange buildings to connect to a network of copper lines which connect them to homes and businesses. BT is an Example of a Local Exchange. The local loop connecting the telephone exchange to most subscribers is capable of carrying frequencies well beyond the 3.4 kHz upper limit.

Benefits of using DSL

DSL can provide virtually instantaneous transmission of voice, data and video over ordinary copper phone lines. A DSL connection can eliminate delays when waiting to download information and graphics from the Internet. It provides users with a cost effective high speed Internet connection. Another benefit is that a DSL connection is always on-line (like a LAN connection) with no waiting time for dialling or connecting.

There are now more than 10 million broadband connections in the UK. By December 2005 there were 9.792 million broadband connections in the UK and the average broadband take up rate during the three months to December was more than 70,000 per week.

A Great Reason Why People Need to Watch Comedy Movies

Everyone needs a good laugh from time to time. That is when we go to see a good comedy. There are many reasons why this genre of movies is good. Everyone needs a little bit of laughter at some point in their life. They have to smile because things in this life just wear us out and break us down. However, there is a good thing or two to know about comedies.

Comedies are suitable for people from all age groups. There are cartoons for kids and more matured content for adults and teenagers. Comedy is a way to keep people from all walks of life entertained. Some comedies are based on family values, therefore making it suitable for parents and children to watch and enjoy together.

Nevertheless, some of the materials used to make people laugh have been pretty controversial. There have been some comedies that are based on jokes that demean a person’s sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians have been bashed greatly in most comedy flicks. It is very common to turn on your TV to watch a movie, and to find that there is a gay or lesbian in the movie that has all the perceived characteristics associated with homosexuals.

There are also some films that make comedy out of racist jokes. People tend to laugh when they show a movie where a Mexican is driving a van recklessly when there are other drivers on the road. Some make racist jokes about black people. Contrary to what is being fought for by human rights, our society has taught us that making fun with racism is very acceptable.

There might have been times that come you have gone to watch a comedy movie and left the cinema finding that the movie is not funny at all. There are some movies that just try too hard to be funny. You probably would have seen at least one of these lousy comedies. We wonder where the directors came up with such a plot for these films. It is almost as though someone who was smoking weed had put random videos together and called it a movie.

However, there are some comedies that touch the heart and stick to you. Many favored movies that made jokes about previous movies that have been released. Many of you will remember the Scary Movies films which made fun of several horror movies. We laughed because Scary Movie made fun of other horrific and scary movies, and turned it into a light-hearted movie.

We should have a little time for comedies in our lives. It is what we need after a tough or bad day. Sometimes, we don’t want the fairy tale ending. We don’t want to think. We just want to laugh and enjoy the show. This is what top 10 comedy movies do for us. It is also the type of movie you can go to when you want to watch something alone. And at the same time, you can watch comedies together with a group of friends. Finally, comedies will be perfect if you just need to calm down and lose yourself for the moment.

Computer Hardware Course – The Advantages of Taking It

Computer hardware courses are an excellent way to learn how to manage the inevitable computer failures that you will encounter as you find yourself depending on your computer more and more everyday. While you do have the option of taking your computer to the service center it can cost you a lot of time and money. Your computer hardware course is invaluable for helping you understand the hardware requirements for your computer that will be enable you to jump to the rescue instead of trudging along to the repair shop.

It does not take an engineer or a technician to be successful in learning about computer hardware. If you are interested in engineering or technician positions however, a background in computer hardware can make you a far more valuable person in your field and can enhance your employability tremendously.

To troubleshoot your computer you can do very well with a simple computer hardware course. You can become your own specialist and forgo spending the money on an IT specialist.

The time invested in a computer hardware study program will pay off quickly when things go wrong. But, this is not the only reason taking a computer hardware course would be a good plan.

Not only will you be able to fix your computer, but you will have the knowledge to build a computer from scratch. The cost of computer parts is often far less expensive than buying a pre-made package. You will also be able to customize your computer so that it is perfectly designed for your needs.

By avoiding the cost of labor from the computer store you will have a far less expensive computer that is perfect for you. You will also no longer need to worry about taking your computer in for repairs as you will know just how to fix what goes wrong.

Computer knowledge is in high demand no matter what career you are involved in. With the information you learn in a computer hardware course you will be able to take on an IT position. Such positions are in high demand as a limited number of people have the knowledge to take on an IT role.

The time needed to take a computer hardware course is well worth the investment. Learning about software and programming can only make you even better with your computer goals. If you are limited in time, not to worry. Many courses are available online or on CD for you to do at home.

Take some time to discover exactly what will be covered in your course. The computer technology field is huge, so you will need to focus. You will never be able to learn everything about computer hardware in a single course. It takes a lifetime of study to learn, and with technology constantly changing you will need to continually work on keeping your knowledge up to date. A computer hardware course will bring you a chance to get ahead of the game and keep up with your own computer.

Louis Zhang, computerhardwarecourseit dot com

Why People Love Science Fiction Movies

Science fiction movies are one of those genres that people just cannot get enough of. They appeal to the need that people have to believe that there is something else out there besides us. When people need something to believe in they either lean towards religion or science. Those that lean towards science love these types of films.

People also like to ask, “what if…” in different ways. Science fiction movies allow people to open up their imaginations to all sorts of possibilities. What if there is life on other planets? What if that life came here to Earth? What if that life form was bad? What if that life form was good? All of these questions are things we ask ourselves and these types of movies allow us to explore the possibilities.

Science fiction movies are often full of things that we like in movies. There is suspense and excitement. There are battle scenes and sometimes even romance. The storytelling is often of high quality and thought provoking questions are addressed. These films often address issues like ethics and philosophy and can make us think for days on end.

There are many great science fiction movies out there and they appeal to a wide audience. If you have never watched sci fi flicks before check out some of these classic movies:

· The Matrix Trilogy: This trilogy of science fiction movies follows Neo and his friends as it addresses the question, What if this life isn’t real? What if we have another life and the life we think we are living is just a dream?

· The Star Wars Movies: This series of movies kept sci-fi fans on the edge of their seats for over a decade with movies that brought together love, ethics, power, the battle for right and wrong, and of course, exploration of the universe.

· The Star Trek Movies: Over the past several decades there have been many Star Trek movies made. The older movies are as fascinating as the new ones and the characters pull you in.

· Planet of the Apes: The first movie was made in 1968 made us think about what would have happened if we had not completely evolved. A remake of the original movie was made in 2001.

· E.T.: This is one of the first movies that made people think of aliens in a positive way. Children and adults alike fell in love with this sweet extra-terrestrial that just wanted to go home.

Understanding the Significance of Computer Hardware

We are living in an age that is highly influenced by technology. Most of the activities we need to do now are automatic or computerized. Of all the technological developments achieved in the recent past, one significant tool that got developed and which will certainly keep influencing our lives is the computer. You would agree that computers play a very substantial role in our daily life, just like the television and the cell phone. We are already at a stage where life will be difficult without a computer. That makes it important to understand the way a computer works, and thus be informed of what we should do if it stops working. The most important part of any computer is its hardware, in the absence of which it just can’t function.

If you are really keen to assess what has gone wrong with your computer when it stops working, you should understand the working and constituents of its hardware. You should essentially have solid knowledge about the computer hardware when you want to undertake its troubleshooting on your own. One important part of the hardware is the RAM memory of any computer. For running any program or application, any computer needs a RAM memory. Other than that, if the computer has a RAM with specifications that are not compatible with the programs it is expected to run, its operation will be slowed down and it would almost crawl. When choosing a computer, you need to ensure that its hardware is not outdated, otherwise you’ll have to upgrade it in order to be able to use the intended program.

You must take certain basic precautions while handling the hardware of computers. The most essential precaution is to ensure that the power supply to your computer is switched off, else it could cause an electric shock. Then, before you touch any part within the computer, ensure that you are not carrying any electric charge by connecting to a grounded piece of metal, or you may procure an anti-static mat or wrist band available in the market. While inspecting the hardware components, you should look for broken or damaged component, as these are most likely the reasons for the computer malfunction. If a component doesn’t fit in the slot, you are probably trying to fit it in the incorrect slot.

Once you know the hardware employed in your computer and the role it plays in the functioning of your computer, you’ll be in a position to undertake its troubleshooting when it malfunctions. Each piece of hardware contributes to the successful functioning of the computer. To a large extent, the working of a computer depends on the quality of its hardware, making it imperative to keep it in good condition.

Impact of American Movies On Our Lives

Providing thorough entertainment, movies are a source of indulging us in an imaginary world. At times, the movies are so enticing that we start believing in being a part of that movie. With work load and stress, life can get worked up, watching a good movie will help a person relax his mind by releasing emotional stress. A good entertaining movie will help you laugh and that can be a high stress reliever. Watching a good movie also revitalizes the mind to perform a stressful work in the future.

With over 2,577 movies roughly produced each year, movies are a very prominent part of entertainment industry. Movies are watched by individuals irrespective of their age, apart from the children under 18, for which parental guidance is required in some cases. Though movies are created for all watchers, there are movies created that are gender specific. For example, action and thriller movies are made predominantly for males. While romantic and drama movies are preferred by women. Genres of comedy, horror and suspense are watched by both the genders equally.

Animated movies though created fundamentally for children are one of the best kinds for all age group. These movies showcase an imaginary world and teach us lessons about love, morals and relationships. The movies help us understand and realize minor things in life that we shouldn’t overlook.

Not only do movies teach us about humanitarian values. They also provide us knowledge on diversified subjects of culture, science, history, politics, technological advancements and so much more. The sci-fi movies help us glimpse into the future providing the amazing visual effects with 3D technology. We are also able to understand different environments and work culture and historical geographies of different countries.

Movies made on biographies helps us know the lives of legends and learn from their struggles, during their journey of success. Such movies inspire us to be at our best. It delivers hope and a new set of determination in fighting for our goals. Film industry is loaded with such inspirational movies that it uplift our spirits when we are passing through a tough phase of our life, whether it’s instability of love, health or financial.

It is difficult to ignore the fact that American movies are also responsible for establishing false notion on several aspects. Showcasing perfect body image and portraying flawless characters give rise to unrealistic expectations. Movies give rise to violence as well, however, It’s through the movies that we have learned that good guys always wins in the end.

Top Hardware Issues to Consider When Selecting a Vendor

The most difficult part of selecting a brand of hardware could be the lack of familiarity among the options. This is why selecting an IT networking hardware vendor can be like buying a used car in a foreign country. When presented with several choices, our initial reaction is to go with the cheapest option. However, this is not always the best choice, as there are several important factors to consider when making smart purchases.

When choosing network hardware, service and repair warranties serve an important role. For example, how far will technicians travel to service your network on-site? What services are included, and what costs extra? Once you’ve made your choice of hardware, what can you expect in terms of ongoing support and upgrade options? Before going ahead with the purchase, have a clear understanding of the terms for these sorts of services and how they relate to your network and location.

Many of the bigger hardware vendors set their pricing structure with future purchases in mind. Often, a customer will be able to get discounts on the initial sale if the seller expects that the account will generate future sales as well. It’s a good idea to express your long-term technology goals to the vendor for this reason.

There are some important factors to consider after you’ve selected the right hardware vendor:

Switches: This is what you’ll be plugging the cables into, the ‘spinal cord’ of the whole network. It’s common for networks to contain both fiber optic and copper cable; in this case, the switch will need to accommodate both. Otherwise, choosing the right switch for your office will depend on the traffic you’ll be accommodating and the media type used.

Devices: Your choice of devices should be based on performance expectations and network compatibility. Will the firmware be upgradeable? Will you use regular computers, or thin client terminals? What about articulated arms in the exam rooms? It’s important to reach agreements about device configurations, whether server, printer, or laptop. In fact, physicians should always check before making a computer purchase, to be sure that the device they want will function well on the network. By examining the network on a regular basis, the entire system can be kept in sync and up to date with current changes in technology. This system of updated improvements will help you attain maximum performance results while streamlining your technical needs.

Servers: Keep redundancy in mind when selecting a server. Will one machine cover the power of another that fails? If the hard drive crashes, will an array of RAID drives pick up the slack? How many processors are there, and how much RAM? Select a backup tape drive that is large enough to store all your data yet speedy enough to back everything up overnight. What about the physical setup of the network equipment? Maybe a custom rack or secure housing unit should keep the servers safe, particularly if there is a series of servers as in many EMR system set-ups.

The Top Ten Mermaid Movies Ever

Most people have seen Disney’s “The Little Mermaid” animated movie. But there are several others which are absolutely excellent – classics. Here they are:

1. My top pick for a mermaid movie is “Splash”. Not only is it funny and the plot wonderful, but there is quite a bit of awesome footage of Daryl Hannah mermaiding in the ocean. We can’t get enough of that! Keep in mind that this is not a children’s movie. It was made in the ’80s, and for the most part it is okay for the family to watch. But there is a little bit of nudity (when the mermaid is walking into New York out of the ocean with nothing but her long hair to cover her) and there is some implication of what she and the Tom Hanks character are doing in the elevator, though nothing is shown. The movie is wonderful, with a great story and awesome mermaid footage and lots of laughs, as well as a great romance.

2. My second top choice is “The Secret of Roan Inish”. This is a safe, quiet movie the entire family can enjoy. It was made in Ireland, and as such is slower and quieter than most American movies. It is about a little Irish girl who moves to live with her grandparents. While there she unwittingly stumbles upon the mystery surrounding the island the family used to live on, called “Roan Inish” (Island of the Seals). As she slowly solves the mystery, she brings healing and unity back to the family. In this movie the mythical creature is a selkie, not a mermaid. The selkie lives in the form of a seal. On occasion she climbs up on a rock and removes her seal skin, revealing a beautiful woman. So this movie is a little bit different, and you will never look at a seal the same way again.

3. My third favorite mermaid movie is “Aquamarine.” This one is geared to the teen crowd. It has nothing unseemly, so the whole family can enjoy it. It’s a delightfully different rendition of the classic Little Mermaid story, with a wonderful surprise ending. The mermaid in this movie is different, more like a regular teen girl. There are several good shots of her in the water. The messages in this movie are high quality, such as loyalty, friendship, personal confidence, selflessness and courage. And it is also very funny.

4. Number four of my top mermaid movies is an old black and white classic called “Mr. Peabody and the Mermaid.” You will have a challenge finding this movie to watch, but VHS versions are available for sale on Amazon.com. All of the underwater footage was filmed in the famous Weeki Wachee Springs in Weeki Wachee, Florida, only a year after this underwater theater opened. Made in 1948, this movie is about a married couple taking a vacation in the Caribbean. The man is almost 50 and is having a mid-life crisis. While on vacation he accidentally fishes up a live mermaid from the sea! Ann Blyth plays the enchanting mermaid and you will love this wonderful film. The only objections a parent might have is the theme of extramarital flirting, and some funny scenes with a guy trying to give up smoking.

5. One that is a little different, and which only recently came out, is a Japanese anime Miyazaki movie called “Ponyo on the Cliff by the Sea”, or simply “Ponyo”. In this one the fish-girl is depicted as a goldfish with a human face, which is rather strange. But in an unusual twist, this five-year-old fish-girl has to get the little five-year-old human boy to love her faithfully, or she will turn into sea foam and be no more. It is such a sweet interpretation, these small children learning to love and trust each other in such an innocent way. It is a tale of wonder and courage and should not be missed.

6. My pick for number six is Disney’s “The Little Mermaid”. It was the movie that got Disney back into the popular movie business again in the 1980s. The music and story are a delight. I remember how enchanted I was when it first came out – it is a delightful mermaid movie, fun for the whole family.

7. Number seven for me is the Russian adaptation of “The Little Mermaid.” This 1976 film shows plenty of wonderful mermaid footage under the sea. Back then the swimmers had only small flippers, so they had to ripple their legs in a very quick motion for movement. The underwater scenes are only in the beginning of the movie, but they are marvelous!! (I can’t figure out how those swimmers could be in the water with all those jellyfish!!). You can find this movie to rent at Netflix and it is directed by Vladimir Bychkov. Again, this version of Anderson’s famous story is a little different, almost a completely new story. Be forewarned that there is nudity in one scene, and portrayals of a witch performing magic. Other than those the whole family will enjoy this one.

8. “Barbie Mermaidia” is a little-kid movie, but the plot is good and the scenes are beautiful. I especially enjoyed the unusual design of Barbie’s mermaid tail. In this story the main character has to make great sacrifice, and learns some good lessons. I like this one better than the newest Barbie mermaid movie because of its great message.

9. There was much excitement this year over the new release of “Barbie in a Mermaid Tail.” This one has wonderfully fun surfboarding scenes. The mermaid world of Oceana was a little strange – basically a mimic of our materialistic society. This made it funny but in this setting you lose the mystery and magic of legendary mermaids. This is what I call a “fluff” movie – nothing deep, just fun images and a nice little story.

10. My least favorite mermaid movie is a kid movie called “Roxy Hunter and the Myth of the Mermaid.” It’s about a young small-town journalist named Roxy who gradually discovers her new homeless friend (a beautiful blond) is actually a mermaid. The movie is okay but throughout the entire film there are no underwater scenes or scenes with a mermaid in a tail – none – until after the very end. Then, finally, you see about 10 seconds of the blond mermaid swimming underwater with a gorgeous tail. The story is interesting enough, however, and children will certainly enjoy this movie.

Define Computer Hardware

It is quite well known that the working of the computer is pulled by hardware and software. One can define computer hardware as the electronic, magnetic, and electric devices that carry out the computing functions. Hardware is the physical components of the computer like microprocessor, hard disks, RAM, and motherboard. The peripheral devices such as monitor, mouse, keyboard, printer, and speakers can also be included in the list of hardware parts. The programs that run on the computers like Windows, C++, and Photoshop are the software parts of the computer. A good example for an easy understanding of hardware-software definition is music CDs. The actual compact disk is the hardware, while the songs and music in the CD are the software parts.

There is another way to define computer hardware. Hardware devices are the executors of the commands provided by software applications. For example, let us see what happens when you click the print button of the web browsing software. The software application provides a command to the processor, which is the central part of all computer hardware. Processor in turn checks for an attached printer. If the printer is ready, the software will get a positive response from the processor. Then the software application provides instruction to the printer via the processor to print the web page. In that sense, hardware parts are the foot soldiers and software applications are the commanders in the digital operation that takes place within a computer.

The main player of computer hardware is undoubtedly the microprocessor. It is the sun in the solar system of computer hardware devices. It is the central component and all other components work around it. It is an integrated chip on which a number of functions are incorporated. Two specifications determine its efficiency. One is its processing speed, which is measured in gigahertz. The other is its bit rate. Commonly available processors are 32 bit and 64 bit. The bit rate is a measure of the efficiency of a processor to carry out multiple operations at the same time.

One cannot define computer hardware without mentioning the two types of memory used in computers. One is permanent memory. It refers to the magnetic storage capacity of hard disk. It is measured in gigabytes. The second is RAM or random access memory. This memory is able to store data only when the computer is switched on. The memory will lose all the data when the computer is switched off.

Another important product that one should mention when one defines computer hardware is motherboard. It is the electric and electronic circuit board on which all the other components are inserted. There are several other kinds of products such as sound card, video card, network card, and modem that complete the hardware spectrum.

Watching A Movie Will Relieve Stress

One of the things that most people need to do is to find a proper way to relieve stress. This is because stress is really something that can negatively impact your health. According to some studies, stress is caused by a continuous buildup of tension within the person and unless these things are properly released, the stressed individual could end up having serious problems later on. Similarly, it must be said that if stress is not relieved in a proper way, the stressed individual could end up doing all sorts of undesirable acts that would detriment society. And so for those people out there who are feeling stressed, why not do something fun like watching a movie?

Watching a movie is a highly suggested method when it comes to releasing stress. This is because viewing a film transports the person into a different world where he can forget his problems even for a few hours. Though it must be said that viewing a film will not erase the problems that you have in real life, it will at least enable you to stop thinking of those problems for a while which means your mind will be able to unclench itself. Always keep in mind that the mind is clenched into a sort of ball whenever it is stressed and so the best antidote to such a situation is to find a way to relax your mind before it clenches itself any further.

Is there a specific type of movie that should be watched? Most experts would suggest that a stressed individual should watch something light and funny because viewing a horror movie may not really unclench your mind that much. This is because what the horror movies are meant to give you quite a scare and as such, this could actually add on to the stress that you already had going into the movie. In this light, always remember that you should veer away from activities that will add on to your stress because those things are definitely going to create bigger problems for you.

At the end of the day it must be said that watching a movie is one of the best ways to relieve a person of stress. If and when you feel quite stressed, do remember to take some time out to catch a movie because doing so could really work wonders for you in the long run.